SOX - Short distance Oscillations with boreXino

sox page

 

 

 

Last update 1 February 2018  - THE SOX PROJECT IS CANCELLED DUE TO THE IMPOSSIBILITY OF REALIZING THE SOURCE WITH THE REQUIRED CHARACTERISTICS The National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN) communicates the decision, commonly agreed with the Institute of Research into the Fundamental laws of the Universe (CEA/IRFU), to cancel the SOX project due to the technical impossibility of carrying out the experiment. The Russian source producer, Mayak Production Association, has announced in December that it will not be able to deliver with the required characteristics the anti-neutrinos generator based on Cerium 144, at the core of the SOX project.

Read the press note

 

SOX (Short distance Oscillations with boreXino) is a project whose scientific objective is to confirm or clearly confute the phenomenon of the so-called "neutrino anomalies" observed by certain experiments worldwide, which have measured an “anomalous” disappearance of some of these particles in neutrino flows. An explanation of the phenomenon might lie in the existence of sterile neutrinos, particles hypothesised based on certain as yet unobserved theories, which differ from the neutrinos we know today due to some of their characteristics: for example, they would appear to interact with matter solely through gravity and not through weak forces. The SOX project, designed to identify sterile neutrinos, envisages work in tandem of an antineutrino generator and of the Borexino experiment, a highly sensitive neutrino and antineutrino detector in operation since 2007 at INFN's Gran Sasso underground Laboratories, protected from cosmic rays thanks to the 1400 metres of rock of the massif above it. The very high level of radiopurity (i.e. the almost total absence of radioactivity), the large dimensions and the proven ability to measure both neutrinos and antineutrinos with great precision make Borexino the ideal tool to accomplish this research.

The SOX antineutrino generator, which will be manufactured in Russia based on the most up-to-date techniques, will contain a solid powder Cerium-144 source which, spontaneously decaying, will produce the antineutrinos needed for the experiment. The Cerium-144 source will be sealed in a double steel capsule, which in turn will be shielded by a tungsten shield weighing over 2.4 tons and with a thickness of 19 cm, specially made for SOX, in order to prevent the gamma rays, produced together with the neutrinos in the decays, from dispersing outside. The antineutrino generator will then be placed near Borexino, in a housing that will completely eliminate gamma ray emissions, which would irremediably pollute the rare signals left by the neutrinos. The goal of the SOX generator, in fact, is to produce only and exclusively antineutrinos, because even the smallest presence of radioactivity would be fatal for the success of the experiment: total isolation of the antineutrino generator from the outside is an indispensable condition for implementation of the project and also of all other research activities in the Gran Sasso underground Laboratories.

Sterile neutrinos. There are three types of neutrinos: electronic, muonic and tau which, when interacting with matter, can produce electrons, muons and tau particles, respectively. However, neutrinos can switch from one type to another: this phenomenon is called neutrino oscillation. Certain neutrino detectors worldwide have observed an anomaly in this oscillation process in electronic neutrino flows, measuring the disappearance of some of these particles. This anomaly can be explained by the existence of so-called sterile neutrinos. The discovery of these particles would have profound implications for the understanding of the universe and of fundamental particle physics. The sterile neutrino would, in fact, open up a new era in physics and cosmology, since it would be the first particle to be discovered not included in the Standard Model, which is our current theory that describes the elementary particles and the interactions that regulate their behaviour. In the event of a negative result, on the other hand, the experiment would be able to definitively close a long debate on the anomalies of the neutrino. Moreover, it could explore the existence of a new physics in low energy neutrino interactions, provide a measurement of the magnetic moment of the neutrino and allow an exceptional calibration of the Borexino detector, very useful for future high-precision measurements of solar neutrinos.

 italian version

Gran Sasso National Laboratories (LNGS) - INFN

web site www.lngs.infn.it/
Environment: www.lngs.infn.it/it/ambiente
Safety: www.lngs.infn.it/en/safety
Neutrino Physics at LNGS: www.lngs.infn.it/it/fisica-del-neutrino
Borexino and SOX: www.lngs.infn.it/it/borexino

Borexino Photo gallery

LNGS communication

PRESS NOTE 1  FEBRUARY 2018

PRESS NOTE 28 NOVEMBER 2017
PRESS NOTE 13 NOVEMBER 2017
NEWS "Il test di trasporto per l'esperimento SOX" 11 OCTOBER 2017

 

CSN5 technological research experiments

The INFN is involved in some major experimental projects that will open up new frontiers for research into detectors and detector electronics. R&D activity in this field regards high-energy, high-intensity electron accelerators, proton and ion accelerators to produce radioactive beams and for hadron therapy applications. Other projects are concerned with accelerators for producing very-high-energy and highly coherent electromagnetic radiation (X-FEL) and the ESS (European Spallation Source) project being developed at Lund in Sweden.

The INFN’s research work in biomedicine has important implications for medical imaging, cancer treatment, dosimetry and the study of cell growth and neurological models. Furthermore, the highly advanced, extremely sensitive measurement technologies and systems developed as the result of experiments in fundamental physics are increasingly being used in the analysis of objects of artistic, archaeological and historical interest.

The INFN collaborates through CSN5 with the leading national and regional research and monitoring agencies operating in the public health sector, including the Italian National Institute of Health (ISS), the Ministry of Health, foundations and national and regional health authorities, as well as with other research agencies (ITT, CNR, INGV) and, of course, with universities. Technological transfer is also fostered through the development of specific collaboration agreements with industrial associations (CONFINDUSTRIA and CONFAPI).

 

 

EXPERIMENTS 2019
LINEA DI RICERCA: RIVELATORI, ELETTRONICA E INFORMATICA 
3D_SIAM  
3DOSE  
ARCADIA  
BOLAS  https://web.le.infn.it/bolas/
BULLKID  
CIMICE  
COSINUS  www.cosinus.it
DEEP_3D
 
DEMIURGOS  
DESIGN  
ESQUIRE https://web.infn.it/esquire
FIRE  
FTM_NEXT  
MPGD_NEXT  
PICS  
PRONG  
PROSD  
REDSOX2  
RSD  
SICILIA  https://sites.google.com/site/infnsicilia/
SIMP  
THEEOM_RD  
TIMESPOT  
ASAP  
FEEL  
FINFET16V2  
IDDLS  
MC-INFN  https://web.infn.it/Geant4-INFN/
PHOS4BRAIN  
SPE http://spe.web.roma2.infn.it
TURBONET https://turbonet.web.roma2.infn.it/
   
LINEA DI RICERCA: ACCELERATORI E TECNOLOGIE ASSOCIATE 
ASIDI  
BISCOTTO  
E-PLATE  
ELIOT  
L3IA  
LEMMAACC  
MAPS-3D  
MICA  
MOPEA  
NUCLEAAR  
PLANETA  
PLASMA4BEAM  
PROMOD2  
SL_COMB2FEL http://www.lnf.infn.it/acceleratori/sparc_lab/
SL-EXIN http://www.lnf.infn.it/acceleratori/sparc_lab/
TEFEN  
TERA  
   
LINEA DI RICERCA: FISICA INTERDISCIPLINARE 
3CATS  
4D_GRAPHX  
AEQUO  
AIM  
ANET  
BEAT_PRO  
CHIR2 http://arpg-serv.ing2.uniroma1.it/arpg-site/index.php/research-projects/medical-physics/probes-for-radio-guided-surgery
CHNET_TANDEM http://chnet.infn.it/it/ricerca-2/chnet_tandem/
GLARE_X  
HADROMAG  
HEAT  
I3_PET  
IT_STARTS  
ISOLPHARM_AG https://agenda.infn.it/categoryDisplay.py?categId=1036
KEST  https://web.infn.it/kest/
KISS  
LAG  
MARIX_RAD  
METRICS  
MITO  
MOVE_IT www.tifpa.infn.it/projects/move-it/
NEPTUNE  
NIRVANA  
PANDORA  
SR3T http://fisicamedica.fisica.unina.it/index.php/staff/mettivier/9-grants/15-sr3t
SYRMA-3D  
TRACCIA  
WISE  

CSN3 nuclear physics experiments

Current experiments use high-energy particle collisions to study how the elementary particles of matter, quarks, come together to form the nuclei of atoms. The collision between an electron and a nucleus – in research pursued by the INFN collaboration at the Jefferson Lab – will provide a three-dimensional image of the inside of the nucleus while collisions between lead nuclei – at CERN in Geneva – can, for a short instance, produce a bubble of quark-gluon plasma, the primordial state of matter. The formation of the stars, which only appeared as the universe expanded and cooled, is the subject of research at the INFN’s national laboratories. At the Gran Sasso national laboratory, for instance, the small LUNA accelerator is used to study the formation of nuclei with energies comparable to those of stars, which are much lower than the energies obtained with normal particle accelerators. The Legnaro and Southern national laboratories house some of the most advanced accelerators and detectors in the world, which are used to produce and study the characteristics of unstable nuclei. One of the main aims of these experiments is to understand the mechanisms underlying the formation of heavy nuclei, with a mass greater than that of iron, in large stars. Scientists at the Frascati national laboratory are involved in ongoing research into nuclear force in the presence of “strange” quarks, which is important for understanding the behaviour of neutron stars.

 

    EXPERIMENTS 2019
  AEGIS http://aegis.web.cern.ch/aegis/
  ALICE http://www.bo.infn.it/alice-italia/Alice/alice_italia_pub.html
  ASACUSA http://asacusa.web.cern.ch/ASACUSA/
  ASFIN2  http://www.lns.infn.it/index.php?option=...
  ERNA2 http://www.matfis.unina2.it/dipartimento-205/
  EXOTIC http://www.na.infn.it/it/aree-di-ricerca-gruppo3/19-sito-gruppo-iii/192-linea3 
  FAMU http://webint.ts.infn.it/it/ricerca/exp/famu.html 
  FOOT http://web.infn.it/f00t/index.php/en/
  GAMMA http://www.pd.infn.it/gamma 
  JEDI http://collaborations.fz-juelich.de/ikp/jedi/index.shtml
  JLAB12 http://www.ge.infn.it/jlab12/
  KAONNIS  http://www.lnf.infn.it/public/index.php?...
  LUNA3 http://luna.lngs.infn.it/
  MAMBO http://bamboo.pv.infn.it/Mambo/ 
  NEWCHIM https://www.lns.infn.it/it/apparati/chimera.html
  NUMEN https://web2.infn.it/NUMEN/index.php/it/
  N-TOF https://ntof-exp.web.cern.ch/ntof-exp/
  NUCL-EX http://www.bo.infn.it/nucl-ex/ 
  PRISMA-FIDES  http://www.lnl.infn.it/~prisma/prisma.html
  ULYSSES http://ulysses.to.infn.it/ 
  VIP http://www.lnf.infn.it/esperimenti/vip/ 

      

CSN4 theoretical physics

The research activities of CSN4, involving around 1,000 scientists from all divisions of the INFN and three of the four national laboratories, regard so-called “Specific Initiatives” and are conducted in close collaboration with the academic world.

The theoretical research carried out by the INFN is of huge international interest. This is borne out by more than 1,200 scientific works and papers published in international journals with referees, the large number of citations and presentations at the most authoritative international conferences. The INFN works in close collaboration with theoretical physics researchers from around the world, in a constant exchange of ideas and experience among the various research agencies and with a significant contribution by young people (post-graduate and/or post-doctoral students), as reflected by some 300 theses and 70 doctoral dissertations produced each year.

In recent years, the INFN has also made a notable contribution to the development of parallel computers, for instance under the APE (Array Processor Experiment) project, of particular interest for research in the field of strong interactions and lattice gauge theories.

 

 

 

PROJECTS 2019  
Teoria dei Campi:
FLAG, GAST, GSSNPQCD, QCDLAT, QGSKY, SFT, STEFI
 

Fenomenologia:
AAE, ENP, HEPCUBE, LQCD123, QFT_HEP, QFTATCOLLIDERS, SPIF

 
Fisica Nucleare e Adronica:
FBS, MANYBODY, NINPHA, SIM, STRENGTH
 
Metodi Matematici:
BELL, DYNSYSMATH, GEOSYM_QFT, MMNLP, QUANTUM
 
Fisica Astro-particellare:
INDARK, NEUMATT, QUAGRAP, TASP, TEONGRAV
 
Fisica Statistica e Teoria di Campo Applicata:
BIOPHYS, ENESMA, NEMESYS, FIELDTURB, PLEXNET
 

CSN2 astroparticle physics experiments

Experiments in astroparticle physics study radiation and cosmic particles. Laboratories on the ground, underground, under the sea, at high altitudes and in space provide the natural settings for these experiments. At the Gran Sasso national laboratory, the biggest underground laboratory in the world, cutting-edge detectors are currently being used to study the dark matter, neutrinos and rare phenomena that can only be detected in conditions of “cosmic silence”, guaranteed by the protection of the rock. The environment protected against penetration by cosmic rays is also ideal for astrophysics research, such as the study of solar neutrinos and supernova neutrinos. Astroparticle physics has also found new openings in different environments: in space, where satellite detectors have direct access to primary cosmic rays that would be mitigated by the atmosphere on the earth’s surface; high-altitude laboratories, for high-energy gamma-ray astronomy; laboratories under the sea for astronomy with high-energy neutrinos, which travel unhindered through the entire globe before being detected by detectors on the seafloor. Italian physicists also carry out pioneering work in the measurement of gravitational waves, both using resonant bar antennae and in developing large interferometric detectors.

 

    ESPERIMENTI 2019
  AMS2 http://www.ams02.org/ 
  ARCHIMEDES_2  
  AUGER http://www.auger.org/
  BOREX http://borex.lngs.infn.it
  CYGNO  https://web.infn.it/cygnus/
  CRESST http://www.cresst.de/ oppure http://cresst.lngs.infn.it
  CTA http://www.cta-observatory.org/
  CUORE http://crio.mib.infn.it/wigmi/pages/cuore.php
  CUPID  
  DAMA http://people.roma2.infn.it/dama/
  DARKSIDE  http://darkside.lngs.infn.it/
  ENUBET_2  http://enubet.pd.infn.it/
  EUCLID  https://www.euclid-ec.org
  FERMI http://fermi.gsfc.nasa.gov/
  FISH  
  GAMMAMEV http://eastrogam.iaps.inaf.it/
  GAPS  
  G-GRANSASSO-RD http://www.df.unipi.it/ginger
  GERDA http://www.mpi-hd.mpg.de/ge76/ 
  HERD_DMP  
  HUMOR  
  ICARUS http://icarus.lngs.infn.it/
  IXPE-INFN

http://xanth.msfc.nasa.gov/ixpe/index.html

http://www.isdc.unige.ch/xipe/

  JUNO http://juno.ihep.cas.cn/
  KM3 Antares , KM3NeT
  LARASE  http://larase.roma2.infn.it/
  LIMADOU_CSN2 cses.roma2.infn.it
  LISA http://www.elisa-ngo.org/
  LSPE  
  MAGIA-ADV http://www.fi.infn.it/sezione/esperimenti/MAGIA/home.html
  MOONLIGHT2 http://w3.lnf.infn.it/ricerca/fisica-delle-astroparticelle/moonlight-2/
  NEWS  http://news-dm.lngs.infn.it
  NU_AT_FNAL  
  QUAX  
  QUBIC  
  SABRE http://sabre.lngs.infn.it/
  SUPREMO https://pasqualemaddaloni.wixsite.com/supremo
  T2K http://www.t2k.org
  TRISTAN  
  VIRGO http://www.virgo-gw.eu/
  XENON http://xenon.astro.columbia.edu/